There are three main types of electric vehicles (EVs). BEVs, or battery electric vehicles, PHEVs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and HEVs, or hybrid electric vehicles.
- Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are powered solely by batteries.
- They use an electric motor to turn the wheels and produce zero emissions.
- Since April 2020, zero emission EVs (BEVs) are zero-rated standard road tax (VED) for both the first year and all subsequent years.
- Tesla Model 3, Mini Electric, Nissan Leaf.
- Plug-in hybrids are capable of zero emission driving, typically between 20-30 miles, and can run on petrol or diesel for longer trips.
- As the name suggests, they need to be plugged-in to an electricity supply in order to maximise their zero emission capability.
- They have a reduced road tax (VED).
- Mitsubishi Outlander, Volkswagen Golf GTE, Toyota Prius Plug-in.
- Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are capable of zero emission driving, but typically over less range than a PHEV.
- They use electric power generated during braking to improve fuel economy and run on petrol or diesel for longer trips.
- They have a lower road tax (VED).
- Toyota Yaris Hybrid, Lexus RX450h, Ford Mondeo Hybrid.
- Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles (MHEVs), sometimes known as hybrid assist vehicles, have a petrol or diesel internal combustion engine equipped with an electric motor that can allow the engine to be turned off as the car is coasting or braking.
- The motor can also be used to provide assistance to the engine, reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
- MHEVs cannot be driven on electricity alone.
- Mercedes-Benz S 400, Range Rover Evoque, Suzuki Swift.
- Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV) are zero-emission electric vehicles, which use hydrogen fuel cells to generate power.
- Hydrogen stored in an on-board fuel tank is combined with oxygen in the fuel cell and the only outputs are electricity, heat and water.
- Toyota Mirai, Hyundai Nexo.